Herbeck JT, Peebles K, Edlefsen PT, Rolland M, Murphy JT, Gottlieb GS, Abernethy N, Mullins JI, Mittler JE, Goodreau SM (2018). HIV population-level adaptation can rapidly diminish the impact of a partially effective vaccine. Vaccine, 36(4), 514-520. (pubmed) (doi)
Development of an HIV vaccine might be essential to ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. However, vaccines can result in the emergence and spread of vaccine-resistant strains. Indeed, analyses of breakthrough infections in the HIV phase 3 vaccine trial RV144 identified HIV genotypes with differential rates of transmission in vaccine and placebo recipients. We hypothesized that, for HIV vaccination programs based on partially effective vaccines similar to RV144, HIV adaptation will rapidly diminish the expected vaccine impact.